The common microphones on the market are moving coil type and capacitive type. What exactly do we need and how do we choose? Which type is the first choice for live performance or studio? In general, the final choice will depend on personal preference, instrument type and music style. Although there is no comprehensive answer, we can at least draw some extensive conclusions based on the traditional application of the two. Let’s start from the following four aspects of microphone:
The difference of working principle: the moving coil microphone uses the principle of electromagnetic induction. It carries the wire coil on the diaphragm, and then places it in the magnetic fields of the magnet. With the change of sound pressure, it continuously moves in the magnetic field to generate induced current, thus converting the sound signal into electrical signal. While the condenser microphone uses the charge and discharge principle of capacitor. The diaphragm of a condenser microphone is usually made of polyester film. The diaphragm is fixed on a capacitor composed of two metal plates. When the diaphragm receives sound waves, the capacitance will fluctuate and output current, which will produce sound after amplification.
Structural differences: the moving coil microphone is mainly composed of coil, diaphragm and shell, with very strong structure and high stability. However, in the structure of the condenser microphone, the structure of the internal capacitor of the sound head is complex, and there are plates (ultra-thin metal film) and amplifiers and other parts inside.
The difference in sound quality: because of the structure of the dynamic microphone, the sensitivity of the moving coil microphone is relatively low and the frequency response is not wide enough. Therefore, the extension of its high range is not good enough, and the weak sound induction will be relatively dull (the instantaneous response is slow), in short, the sound is not delicate and the details are not rich enough. In contrast, the voice of condenser microphone is clear and bright. Because the diaphragm of the condenser microphone is very thin, it can track the change of sound wave more accurately than the moving coil microphone, and provide the most detailed and accurate reproduction for sound acquisition. Therefore, the condenser microphone has the best transient response and the widest frequency response range of all microphone types, and has higher output and lower noise than the dynamic microphone.
The difference of application occasions: capacitive microphone is widely used in professional vocal singing, studio recording, video recording, musical instrument pickup and other occasions. The dynamic microphone is widely used in KTV, performance and other entertainment occasions.